Facts

Facts are added only as statements based on a specific study, so to add new facts, first choose one of the sources.

Vegetarians have lower blood pressure than non-vegetarians Opinion

"It could be that some nutrients in the vegetarian diet may have hypotensive effects but in modest amounts when added as single nutrients. Perhaps combinations of nutrients may be needed to produce enough of a BP-lowering effect to be detected in dietary intervention studies or perhaps longer-term studies will be needed. However, the low BPs of vegetarians are so striking that efforts must be expended to determine why they occur."

Source: Low blood pressure in vegetarians: effects of specific foods and nutrients. Scientific Paper

At least 1 person in 200 000 healthy people have a genetic mutation that should guarantee cystic fibrosis. Study Outcome

Extract from Table 4 "Candidates identified in the Resilience Project": 3 people with cystic fibrosis (Severe pulmonary disease, childhood-onset), 2 people with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (Severe developmental disorder, probably embryonic lethal), 1 person with Familial dysautonomia (Severe neurological disease, high mortality in early childhood), 1 person with Epidermolysis Bullosa simplex (Severe dermatologic condition, infantile onset), 1 person with Pfeiffer syndrome (Severe congenital skeletal dysplasia with variable expressivity), 1 person with APECED (Severe childhood-onset autoimmune disease), 1 person with Acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (Severe skeletal dysplasia with early childhood death), 3 people with Atelosteogenesis (Severe early-onset skeletal dysplasia with variable expressivity)

Source: Analysis of 589,306 genomes identifies individuals resilient to severe Mendelian childhood diseases Scientific Paper

At least 1 in every 45000 healthy people carries mutation that should cause a serious genetic disease. Study Outcome

"Here we analyze sequence and genotype data from 589,306 individuals across 12 studies (complete list in Online Methods) to identify healthy individuals harboring what are currently believed to be completely penetrant Mendelian disease-causing mutations. We refer to this search for resilient individuals as the Resilience Project. We screen mutations in 874 genes believed to cause 584 distinct severe Mendelian childhood disorders. In total, we identified 13 candidate resilient individuals spanning 8 diseases."

Source: Analysis of 589,306 genomes identifies individuals resilient to severe Mendelian childhood diseases Scientific Paper

There are genetic mutations that protect people from certain diseases. Reference

"Despite these challenges, identification of secondary modulators has proven successful across a multitude of model organisms in which the prominent role of second-site suppressors that buffer or modify traits has been established8, 9, 10, 11. For example, human genetic studies have identified rare mutations in CCR5 that confer resilience against HIV infection12, mutations in globin genes that modify the severity of sickle cell disease by buffering primary mutations in β-globin genes13, and LoF mutations in PCSK9 that protect carriers from high lipid levels and resulting heart disease14. Second-site mutations in disease genes have also been shown to revert clinical phenotype in patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis15 and Fanconi anemia16, whereas LoF mutations in zinc transporter 8 have been found to protect obese individuals from diabetes17. Most recently, a variant identified in the gene Jagged1 was found to confer resilience to Duchenne muscular dystrophy in two dogs, implicating Jagged1 as a therapeutic target for the disorder18."

Source: Analysis of 589,306 genomes identifies individuals resilient to severe Mendelian childhood diseases Scientific Paper

There are over 250 thousand people that die every year in USA because of medical errors. There are estimates though that put this number as high as 400 thousand. Either of these numbers put medical error on the 3rd place of the list of the most common causes of death in the United States in 2013. Reference

"The most commonly cited estimate of annual deaths from medical error in the US—a 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report7—is limited and outdated. The report describes an incidence of 44 000-98 000 deaths annually.7 (...) 1993, Leape, a chief investigator in the 1984 Harvard study, published an article arguing that the study’s estimate was too low, contending that 78% rather than 51% of the 180 000 iatrogenic deaths were preventable).10 This higher incidence (about 140 400 deaths due to error) has been supported by subsequent studies which suggest that the 1999 IOM report underestimates the magnitude of the problem. A 2004 report of inpatient deaths associated with the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research Patient Safety Indicators in the Medicare population estimated that 575 000 deaths were caused by medical error between 2000 and 2002, which is about 195 000 deaths a year (table 1⇓).11 Similarly, the US Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Inspector General examining the health records of hospital inpatients in 2008, reported 180 000 deaths due to medical error a year among Medicare beneficiaries alone.12 Using similar methods, Classen et al described a rate of 1.13%.13 If this rate is applied to all registered US hospital admissions in 201315 it translates to over 400 000 deaths a year, more than four times the IOM estimate. Similarly, Landrigan et al reported that 0.6% of hospital admissions in a group of North Carolina hospitals over six years (2002-07) (...) this would translate into 134 581 inpatient deaths a year from poor inpatient care (...) none of the studies captured deaths outside inpatient care—those resulting from errors in care at home or in nursing homes and in outpatient care such as ambulatory surgery centers. A literature review by James estimated preventable adverse events using a weighted analysis and described an incidence range of 210 000-400 000 deaths a year associated with medical errors among hospital patients.16 We calculated a mean rate of death from medical error of 251 454 a year using the studies reported since the 1999 IOM report and extrapolating to the total number of US hospital admissions in 2013. We believe this understates the true incidence of death due to medical error because the studies cited rely on errors extractable in documented health records and include only inpatient deaths. " From the chart "Fig 1 Most common causes of death in the United States, 2013": 1) Heart disease 611k, 2) Cancer 585 k, 3) Medical error 251k, 4) COPD 149k, 5) Suicide 41k, 6) Firearms 34k, 7) Motor vehicles 34k

Source: Medical error—the third leading cause of death in the US Scientific Paper

Frequent aerobic exercises can reduce severity of symptoms of artial fibrillation within 6 months, and cure it completely within 4 years. Opinion

"Overview of existing knowledge regarding exercise training and atrial fibrillation: Frequency: 3-5 days/wk; Intensity: <= 95% peak HR; Time: 120-200 min/wk; Type: Aerobic exercises +/- Resistance Training. Short-Term (< 6 months): Reduced AF Burden, Reduced Symptom Severity (Malmo et al, 2015) Long-Therm (> 4 years): Increased AF freadom; Reduced symptom Severity (Pathak et al, 2015)"

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

Recommended training for treating artial fibrilation based on existing knowledge: aerobic exercises plus potentially resistance training 3-5 days a week, 120-200 min a week, up to 95% peak heart rate Opinion

"Overview of existing knowledge regarding exercise training and atrial fibrillation: Frequency: 3-5 days/wk; Intensity: <= 95% peak HR; Time: 120-200 min/wk; Type: Aerobic exercises +/- Resistance Training. Short-Term (< 6 months): Reduced AF Burden, Reduced Symptom Severity (Malmo et al, 2015) Long-Therm (> 4 years): Increased AF freadom; Reduced symptom severity (Pathak et al, 2015)"

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

The exercise proven to be effective treatment for artial fibrilation is: 30 min per day cycles of 4-minute aerobic exercise around 85% of peak heart rate, followed by 3-minutes of active recovery. Study Outcome

"In the study, patients underwent AIT, in which they engage in four 4-minute bouts of high intensity (commonly 85-95% peak heart rate) aerobic exercise, each interspersed by 3-minutes of active recovery. Previous studies from this center have shown the benefits of this form of exercise, for heart failure [18], and metabolic syndrome [19]. In our clinic, we prescribe exercise up to 85% of peak heart rate for a total duration of 200 minutes per week, a strategy that leads to greater AF freedom in those who make significant gains in cardiorespiratory fitness12. In the absence of comparative data of training modalities for AF patients, current recommendations should focus on prescribing forms of aerobic exercise that patients enjoy and are most likely to adhere to, rather than being overly specific. However, the current evidence supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise activities up to, or close to, peak heart rate if appropriate and achievable to the patient (Figure 1). "

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

Infruequent exercises might be ineffective for treating artial fibrillation Opinion

"In the post HF-ACTION15 era, there has been increasing skepticism regarding the efficacy of supervised exercise training as an achievable long-term strategy for the management of cardiovascular disease. In the HF-ACTION trial, initial gains from supervised exercise training over 3-months were diluted by a lack of adherence following the supervised intervention, thus resulting in only modest benefits at final follow-up."

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

Benefits of exercise might be even better than the study shows Opinion

"it is likely that the benefits of exercise may be understated within this reasonably healthy cohort, given its positive effect on risk factor profile"

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

Patients having Aerobic Interval Training (AIT) for 12 weeks experienced fewer and less severe incidence of atrial fibrillation. Study Outcome

"In the current issue of Circulation, Malmo et al11 provide the results of their randomized controlled trial, in which they compared a popular form of high-intensity exercise, aerobic interval training (AIT), with a control group who were not prescribed exercise. The authors’ randomised 51 AF patients referred for catheter ablation, to exercise or no-exercise over 12 weeks, and recorded AF burden from implantable loop recorders as the primary study outcome. Notably, the authors demonstrate a significant reduction in AF burden in the exercise group, where the mean time in AF declined from 8.1 to 4.8%, with no significant change in the control group. Of the exercise group, 38% of patients experienced a decline in their arrhythmia burden compared to only 20% of the control group. Increased AF burden was more common in the control patients (64%) than in the exercise group (12%). Importantly, patients in the exercise group experienced fewer and less severe symptoms following the intervention, with no concomitant change in the control group. Compared to controls, patients randomised to exercise also increased their peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), cardiac function and quality of life, whilst improving body mass index and blood lipids."

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

Judging only by the level of physical activity, and not the type of it, based on previous research, we can say that being phisically active reduces incidence of arrhythias but only slightly, and doing too much exercises increases risk of arrhytmia considerably Opinion

"Until recently, the AF and exercise story has stopped here; that physically active individuals experience a small reduction in risk but doing too much increases arrhythmia risk considerably, consistent with a classic J-shaped phenomenon. Perhaps in part due to these findings and a misguided fear of promoting arrhythmias, there is a scarcity of data regarding the effects of exercise training in patients with non-permanent AF."

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

Endurance sports increase risk of atrial fibrillation between 2 and 7-fold Reference

"At the extreme end of the exercise spectrum, endurance athletes who engage in the greatest volume of exercise training, encounter a risk of AF that rises significantly. Cohort studies provide estimates of AF risk in the endurance athlete population that range from a two 9- to seven-fold 10 elevation in incident AF risk."

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

It's not like every kind of sport significantly reduces artial fibrillation rates Reference

"Surprisingly, despite these favorable modifications of arrhythmogenic risk factors, greater physical activity only modestly reduces incident AF rates7,8"

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

Artial Fibrillation is the most common clinical arrythmia Opinion

"Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinical arrhythmia with a global burden that has increased progressively, contributing to rising hospitalizations and substantial healthcare demands1-3."

Source: Exercise Training and Atrial Fibrillation: Further Evidence for the Importance of Lifestyle Change Scientific Paper

In the new kind of surgery that allows lens to regrow the cut in the lens capsule is reduced to 1.5 mm and moved to the periphery of the lens. Study Outcome

"New minimally invasive surgical method. The capsulorhexis size was decreased to 1.0–1.5 mm in diameter, resulting in a reduced wound area of 1.2 mm2, and moved to the periphery of the lens."

Source: Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function Scientific Paper

1 pill a day between March (before birch pollen season) and June (after birch pollen season) of pills with 5x10^9 CFU of bacteria is a sufficient quantity to achieve reduction of symptoms of birch pollen allergy Study Outcome

"The study material consisted of capsules containing 5×10^9 CFU of a combination of 25% Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) NCFM TM (ATCC 700396) and 75% Bifidobacterium lactis ( B. lactis ) Bl-04 (ATCC SD5219), Danisco Cultures, Madison, USA. (...) The study material consisted of Eligible subjects were assigned to receive one of the individually coded test products. The subjects or their parents were instructed to consume one capsule daily or to suspend its contents in a suitable liquid. The patients attended the study unit 3 times during spring 2006 (Figure 1). The first visit was in March before the birch pollen season, and consumption of the study material started after this visit. The second visit was at the end of April-beginning of May during the birch pollen season and the third visit was in June at the end of the season, when consumption of the study product was finished."

Source: Specific probiotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season Scientific Paper

2 bacteria strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis were effective in reducing nassal symptoms of birtch pollen allergy. Study Outcome

"METHODS: Forty seven children with confirmed birch pollen allergy were randomized to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L . acidophilus) NCFM (ATCC 700396) and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) Bl-04 (ATCC SD5219) or placebo in a double-blind manner for 4 mo, starting prior to onset of the birch pollen season. Symptoms were recorded in a diary. Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and eosinophils. Fecal samples were analysed for microbiota components, calprotectin and IgA. Nasal swabs were taken for analysis of eosinophils. RESULTS: The pollen season induced a reduction in Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Bacteroides which could not be prevented by the probiotic intervention. During the intervention, significantly higher numbers of B. lactis 11.2 × 107 ± 4.2 × 107 vs 0.1 × 107 ± 0.1 × 107 bacteria/g feces (P < 0.0001) and L. acidophilus NCFMTM 3.5 × 106 ± 1.3 × 106vs 0.2 × 106 ± 0.1 ×106 bacteria/g feces (P < 0.0001) were observed in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. During May, there was a tendency for fewer subjects, (76.2% vs 95.2%, P = 0.078) to report runny nose, while during June, fewer subjects, 11.1% vs 33.3%, reported nasal blocking in the probiotics group (P = 0.101). Concomitantly, fewer subjects in the probiotic group had infiltration of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa compared to the placebo group, 57.1% vs 95% (P = 0.013). Eye symptoms tended to be slightly more frequent in the probiotic group, 12.5 d [interquartile range (IQR) 6-18] vs 7.5 d (IQR 0-11.5) (P = 0.066) during May. Fecal IgA was increased in the placebo group during the pollen season; this increase was prevented by the probiotics (P = 0.028)."

Source: Specific probiotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season Scientific Paper

Specific strains of bacteria cure birch pollen allergy Study Outcome

"CONCLUSION: Birch pollen allergy was shown to be associated with changes in fecal microbiota composition. The specific combination of probiotics used was shown to prevent the pollen-induced infiltration of eosinophils into the nasal mucosa, and indicated a trend for reduced nasal symptoms."

Source: Specific probiotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season Scientific Paper

Oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteria do not treat birch pollen allergy Study Outcome

"We studied the effects of similar therapy in teenagers and young adults, who were allergic to birch pollen and apple food and had intermittent symptoms of atopic allergy and/or mild asthma. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, in which respiratory and eye symptoms and use of medications in two groups were compared. Open oral challenge tests with a slice of apple were performed trice: before, during and after the birch-pollen season. There were 18 patients in each group. They used Lactobacillus rhamnosus for 5.5 months; 2.5 months before the pollen season, 1 month during the season (May), an d 2 months after. Results: The results were negative. The treatment did not alleviate the symptoms of the patients or reduce their use of medication during the birch-pollen season or the subsequent 2 months. The treatment did not significantly affect the symptoms caused by apple in the oral chall enge tests. Conclusions: We found no indication of a beneficial treatment effect in our patients. As the number of patients was relatively small, conclusions should be drawn with caution."

Source: No effect of oral treatment with an intestinal bacterial strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), on birch-pollen allergy: a placebo-controlled double-blind study Scientific Paper

Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are 2 types of bacteria potentially helpful in managing food allergies. Reference

"Clinical findings indicate that probiotic supplementation has great potential in the management of food allergy (43). Both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are common probiotics. Their use is also supported by data from studies performed in vitro and in murine models (30)."

Source: Healthy gut microflora and allergy: factors influencing development of the microbiota Scientific Paper

Antibiotic treatment of babies slows down development of healthy gut microflora. Opinion

"Other factors associated with modern maternity wards which can affect the devel- opment of the intestinal microflora in early infancy include antibiotic treatment and nursing in an incubator, both of which delay colonization by lactobacilli."

Source: Healthy gut microflora and allergy: factors influencing development of the microbiota Scientific Paper

Caesarean section limits development of healthy gut microflora. Reference

"Hall and co-workers (20)have demonstrated that conventionally delivered infants were more likely to acquire lactobacilli by the age of 10 days than those delivered through caesarean section. After the age of 30 days, differences were negligible, indicating that contact with the maternal vaginal and intestinal flora was important to initial development of the lactobacilli flora but that other factors were also present during the first weeks of life (20).Some differences, however, appeared to last longer: at 6 months of age 76% of conventionally delivered infants and only 36% of infants born by caesarean section were colonized with bacteria of the Bucteroides frugilis group (19)."

Source: Healthy gut microflora and allergy: factors influencing development of the microbiota Scientific Paper

High higienic standards may restric healthy development of gut microflora Opinion

"In developed countries high hygienic standards may restrict a full transfer of the protective flora. "

Source: Healthy gut microflora and allergy: factors influencing development of the microbiota Scientific Paper

Possible symptoms and outcomes of unhealthy gut microflora include: constipation, diarrhoea, accumulation of gas, infections, liver damage, cancer. Reference

"an aberrant function of the microflora may result in constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence, infections, liver damage and cancer"

Source: Healthy gut microflora and allergy: factors influencing development of the microbiota Scientific Paper

Probiotics (and most likely prebiotics) help treat food allergies. Study Outcome

"Intestinal micro-organisms could down-regulate the allergic inflammation by counterbalancing type 2 T-helper cell responses and by enhancing antigen exclusion through an immunoglobulin (Ig)A response. The efficacy of probiotics (microbial food additions) in the management of food allergy has been demonstrated, and these data suggest that also prebiotics, food components that target certain indigenous gut bacteria, can possibly be used for this purpose. "

Source: Healthy gut microflora and allergy: factors influencing development of the microbiota Scientific Paper

In some cases new method of regeneration of lenses in babies resulted in opacification of the lens due to improper healing, but it happened rarely in comparison with standard surgery. Study Outcome

"Our method resulted in visual axis transparency in >95% of catarac- tous eyes in infants, a much higher percentage than that obtained by traditional surgery. In the remaining patient with VAO, some degree of opacification of the regenerated lens occurred that correlated with improper healing of the anterior capsulorhexis opening and loss of LECs."

Source: Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function Scientific Paper

Lens epiphelial cells (LECs) are the main reason of lens opacification after cataract surgery Opinion

"It is well known that with the current method for paediatric cataract sur- gery, VAO will occur in nearly all patients weeks or months postopera- tively owing to the abnormal proliferation of residual LECs20 "

Source: Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function Scientific Paper

The change that led to lens regeneration in babies was performing cataract surgery with wound opening that is much smaller and on the side, instead of on the front of the eye. Study Outcome

"The current capsulorhexis method performed in paediatric cataract surgery involves making a large 6-mm-diameter opening at the centre of the anterior capsule, resulting in a large wound area and destruction of large numbers of LECs (Extended Data Fig. 1c). To overcome these limitations and to facilitate lens regeneration, we established a new capsulorhexis method. This new method has two advantages: (1) it reduces the size of the wound considerably; and (2) it moves the cap- sulorhexis opening from the central visual axis to the periphery. Thus, application of this procedure led to improved visual axis transparency and preservation of LECs with regenerative potential (Fig. 3a)."

Source: Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function Scientific Paper

BMI1 protein is needed for multiplication of LEC cells and lowering efficiency of this process promotes cataract formation. Study Outcome

"These data suggest that Bmi1 loss of function disrupted LEC proliferation, thereby depleting the LEC pool and promoting cataract formation."

Source: Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function Scientific Paper